History of IQ Test
The famous IQ. The coefficient of intelligence, assessment of mental abilities and the comparison of intellectual development indicators. Who has come up with this terrible thing exposing some people highly developed intellectuals, and others - mentally retarded and close-minded individuals? Who invented this "great and terrible" test for IQ? People have always been interested in the ability to measure intelligence. Where did the IQ test come from? And is it possible to consider this test to be reliable? Certain article will help you to delve into this topic without affecting the moments of boring and long history.
Who invented an IQ test?
The first psychologist who suggested using the assessment of intellectual abilities for testing on the basis of determining the level of education was the French lawyer and psychologist Alfred Binet in 1905. He was seriously interested in studying the psychology of the child, but now these tests are intended for people of all ages and are divided into several scales to give a more accurate result.
|Alfred Binet||William Stern|
However, the term - the coefficient of intelligence - was invented and put into circulation by the German psychologist and philosopher William Stern in 1912. The first test, developed by Binet and his colleague Simon, became globally famous. The basis of modern IQ tests is formed on the distribution of points. Because of this, the term "intelligence factor" is nonexistent in fact, but it is still widely accepted. Modern tests, or as they are often called, WAIS, are used to calculate IQ. These tests are more recent and are used to solve long-term problems, for which special surveillance is needed. Short-term memory, verbal knowledge, perceptual speed and spatial visualization - all these areas are now opened for study through special tests.
In the tests there is such a criterion as common scores and individual calculations. This allows you to conduct a full analysis of the intellect and your effectiveness in each of the different areas. Sometimes tests can be unreliable if you get to the extremes of the scale during its passage. And did you know that your IQ record remains unchanged throughout your life?
Origin of IQ tests
In the early 1900s, the French government passed a law obliging pupils to attend school. In this regard, the French government wanted to find out which students might have problems with discipline. For this matter, Binet took with his colleague Theodore Simon. They started working on a special list with a question that would allow them to assess the person's ability to solve problems, better memorize information and develop attention. Soon this test began to gain popularity and was recognized as one of the most reliable for determining school success.
The realization that some children are able to answer difficult questions, which older children can answer, came quickly. Based on these observations, Binet proposed a concept of mental age. Thanks to it, the average intellect of each age group was determined. Today we call it the Binet-Simon scale, which became the basis for IQ tests. Despite the growing popularity of the test, Binet was not convinced that psychometric tools can be used to measure one, lifelong, innate level of intelligence.
Binet believed that the intellect is affected by a wide range of factors. He also believed that they are changed over the time and are comparable only to children with similar experiences.
Improvements in the IQ test
The adapted test "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale" became a universal intelligence test in the US in 1916. Standford University, along with psychologist Lewis Terman, standardized the Binet-Simon scale for American participants. From this test, the term "Intellectual factor" was introduced, which consisted of one number. The score was generated by taking the subject's mental age according to their physical age and multiplying the result by 100.
The development of the concept of general intelligence was continued by Charles Spearman. This was intended to assess a person's ability to perform a wide range of cognitive tasks. Modern tests, as a rule, are built on such abilities as mathematical skill, memory, spatial perception and the ability to use language. One of the most important ability of a person is solving problems and remembering information. These components can often be seen in the IQ tests.
Once, an American psychologist David Wechsler decided to create a new metric test. He was not satisfied with some limitations of Stanford-Binet's test and in 1955 he developed his own version of the "Weeksler Adult Adult Scale". Weschler believed that the intellect is "the global ability of man to act purposefully, to think rationally and effectively to fight the environment." This test is known to us today under the abbreviation WAIS-IV.
Wechsler also created some other tests for children. Among them are the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Preschool and the Primary Intelligence Scale (WPPSI). There is also a version for adults, containing 10 subtests along with 5 additional tests. There are considered the main areas of the brain, such as:
- Working memory
- Verbal understanding,
- Perceptual reasoning,
- Speed processing.
Generalization of the intelligence can be determined through this test. The first test allows estimating IQ in full scale, combining the performance of all four indices. In the second test, six indicators are counted. A later version has become very useful for identifying learning problems. Sometimes it happens that the test shows low scores along with high scores in other areas. This means that the individual is special, combining all four indexes.
WAIS is designed to compare points with other people in the same age group. This is the main difference from the "simpler" tests of Stanford-Binet. It is quite effective for assessing a person in a certain age group. The average score is fixed at 100. Two-thirds of the scores are usually between 85 and 115. This method has become a universal technique throughout the world, being used in the modern Stanford-Binet test.
So, what result will make you a genius?
Very high IQ - this is fine, but to become a real genius, you are to get 140 +. As mentioned earlier, the average IQ is 100. About sixty-eight percent of IQ scores fall into one standard deviation of this mean.
There is such a value as the bell curves. The higher or lower the scale that you move from the "peak of the bell", the less the number of people who fall into it. 1-24 is excessively low, and 180+ is considered to be extremely high. Usually, such results happen in a fairly small number of people. Normally, the standard deviation varies depending on the number of subjects in the group. The IQ score is designed to measure a person's ability to solve problems.
Between tests and your achieved result, there may be some inconsistencies.
IQ is a widely used term, but its boundaries are very difficult to determine. There are many tests with different scales. The result of one test 132 may be the same as the score 148 on another test. It is very important to use the interpretation of the result to the test that you are taking.
How important is the IQ test for your success?
What do these points really mean? Are there really some IQ points that really can influence a person's life success? Of course, high IQ can be extremely related to academic success. Nowadays, IQ is becoming a popular tool for assessing the intelligence of a person, although, according to other experts, emotional intelligence can be more important than IQ for success.
Is a high IQ indicates a success in life? The most successful people really stand out from the crowd. There is also a stereotype that people with a higher level of intelligence tend to be introverts. For example, Sheldon Copper in The Big Bang Theory or somewhat unstable in the stresses of Sherlock Holmes.
Sometimes the results of this test can be very unexpected. People who seem to be successful can get a fairly low level of IQ. So what's the catch? This is a very controversial issue. A psychologist Lewis Terman worked on it in the 1920s. The level of genius, as a rule, was associated with social and personal "improper adjustment". The psychologist chose 1500 children aged 8 to 12 years with IQ at least 140. On average, the result for the group was 150, and in 80 children the result of the IQ test was even more than 170!
How successful were the groups?
In subsequent years of life, children were under his supervision, in order to see how comfortable they are in society. Contrary to all expectations, these children adapted to it perfectly, being very communicative. They made great progress in their studies, were healthy and less prone to failure, unlike children with a lower IQ level. Although the professor died in 1956, but his research is continued by modern scientists.
This study continues to this day! It is considered one of the longest researches in the history of mankind! Part of the research group continued to achieve great success in life. The group included well-known educational psychologist Lee Cronbach, author Jess Oppenheimer, child psychologist Robert Sears, scientist Ansel Case and many others who have achieved tremendous success and have become teachers in colleges and universities. As of 2003, 200 of the original participants were still alive, and the study should continue until members die or go away.
In 1955, the average annual income was about $5,000, and the group's average income was about $33,000! Sixty-six percent of the group members received degrees in college, having a huge number of diplomas and degrees. Many of the groups became successful business leaders, and also developed in the fields of medicine, law and science!
Once, researcher Melita Auden decided to compare 100 the most successful people, group A, with 100 the least successful group C. These people had about the same level of IQ, but only some of C group became professionals. Moreover, they drink and divorce more compared to group A.
What can explain such a big difference in the life paths of these people with almost the same level of IQ? Terman himself noted that the top 100 people from his research group showed some very interesting similarities. They showed "prudence and forethought, will power, perseverance and the desire to succeed." Purposefulness, self-confidence and perseverance helped them to succeed, in comparison with group C.
It can be concluded that IQ is not a guarantee of success
Of course, you can use IQ to determine the potential of a person in successful future. However, it can not be used to assess a person's behavior outside of work.
Our life depends on "nature and upbringing". Children with high intellectual indices can experience some difficulties in communication, being in the team.
Many modern researchers discuss how the extent IQ influences the success of life and the version of Terman is considered to be one of the most plausible ones.
How accurate are these tests? The results of this test, however, depend on how good and correct the structure of the test itself. Current IQ tests are reliable only if you are on the IQ scale. If your IQ test result gives an estimate at an extremely low or high level, your result cannot be accurately determined.
There are many debates about what affects the results of IQ tests. The level of IQ is affected by several factors, including heredity and the environment (family, school, the social status of a person). The age of the subject also significantly influences the result of passing the test. At 26 years old, as a rule, the intellect of a person reaches its peak, and then only decreases. It is worth noting that some people with an exceptionally high Ai Kew in everyday life turned out to be completely helpless. For example, Kim Peak could not fasten buttons on his clothes. In addition, not all of this talent appeared from birth. Daniel Tammet got his ability to memorize huge numbers of digits after a terrible fit of epilepsy in childhood.
It's like a computer game in which you can customize your character. You are born or created, having a variety of "abilities" that are developed only on the basis of your upbringing and social circle.
But is the level of IQ fixed from birth or can it be improved during the life?
Can your IQ be changed during your life?
Studies conducted in the US (California) showed the level of intelligence can be influenced by many factors — the emotional situation in the family, the care of parents about the formation of the child, attention to his overall well-being, the system of incentives. Speaking of guys, high IQ may be indicated due to close relationships with the mother and the presence of a professionally successful and satisfied with their work father. In girls, the high IQ is related to the friendliness of the father and his ability to get on with his mother. At the age of 8 years, higher IQ is observed in children whose parents were more demanding on their children, compared to those who were neutral or indifferent.
Indicators of intelligence are changed in adulthood. The level of intelligence reaches a peak at the age of 20 to 34 years, then gradually decreases to the age of 60 years, after which it falls sharply. But not all people! Stably high rates of intelligence are demonstrated by those who "train their head" with regular mental loads.
At the same time, however, scientists explain that intellectual opportunities are not unlimited. Yes, the intellect can be developed, but to a certain extent, which is due to its genetic nature. Simply put, if a person starts to engage in mathematics or music, then in the course of classes his abilities will develop, but to become a genius in mathematics or music is given only to units. On the other hand, all the results of various programs on the development of intelligence (at the childhood) show that the intellect can be increased through intensive training, but then, if the training stops, the intellect returns to the previous level. So read and think! Long-term studies on huge samples convincingly prove intelligence determines life success: on the whole, the cleverest have more chances for higher education, they finish more prestigious universities, get more prestigious work after graduation, move faster through the ranks, and their salary is higher than that of people with low intelligence.
The last word
There are a lot of historical versions, but we have discovered the faces of some of them, more important in our opinion. In our time, polls have become more subtle and more interesting. With their help you can not just test simple abilities, knowledge. It is possible to open the secret curtain of our unconscious perception of certain situations. Every modern person knows that passing a test for IQ can increase the level of intelligence. It is like a trainer for the brain. By engaging in daily activities, you will be able to analyze your views.
I would like to add that IQ tests should not be considered obsolete as a technique. That the results of the IQ test are not one-time, and they do not determine your destiny. There are techniques for raising IQ. But in our modern world, specific knowledge can sometimes be much more valuable than your total potential. And the one who has a high IQ can lose it because of the inability and atrophy of the brain.